嚴酷的大暑降臨，連食慾也像融化了一樣，消失得無影無踪！這時來點酸辣的，令味覺甦醒！說到酸辣菜式，當然首推終年炎熱的泰國、以及我國素以“ 麻辣之都” 之稱的四川，二者雖同使辛酸之味吊人胃口，但烹調方式卻大相迴異，來來來，一起走一趟中泰菜的味覺甦醒之旅……
In the summer our appetite tends to be reduced. Try to awaken your taste buds with hot and sour food from Thailand or the “Capital of Heat”, Sichuan in China! Let’s take a Chinese and Thai gastronomic journey and explore their different cooking styles.
The Five Regional Thai Cuisines
Like the eight major regional cuisines of China, Thailand also has five regional cuisines, including Central Thai, Bangkok, Southern Thai, Lannaese and Isan, which reflect the geographical and cultural differences between the 5 regions. The ingredients used are similar to the neighboring countries, for example, Southern Thai dishes use coconut milk and fresh turmeric just like the adjacent country Malaysia, with yellow curry as one of the signature dishes.
Coming from the more mountainous region of Northern Thailand, Lannaese cuisine is influenced by Burmese cuisine with rice noodles as the staple food, while Isan (Northeastern Thailand) cuisine is similar to Lao cuisine with frequent use of glutinous rice.
The middle part of Thailand is rich in fish, rice, vegetables and fruits, which serves Bangkok and Central Thai cuisines. Bangkok cuisine is influenced by Teochew and Portuguese cuisines, tom yum goong is one of the most famous foods of this region. The diverse array of seasonings used in Thai food include Facing-Heaven chili, curry, fish sauce, shrimp paste, and coconut milk. Interestingly, chili was only introduced to the Ayutthaya Kingdom of Thailand in the 4th century.
上文說到四世紀時辣椒才傳入泰國，其實在辣椒傳入以前，泰國王室吃得較為簡單，都以魚及米為主。直到大城王朝時，各國商使到泰經商風氣日盛，不少食材及新煮法就此由外國傳入 。到了現在，以芒果，柚子等水果入饌，仍然是泰國宮廷菜極受歡迎的菜式。澳門的米其林推介泰國餐廳“灆”菜單上就有部分王室美饌﹕如泰式暹邏香草柚子蝦沙律，就是始於現今的曼谷王室。當中使用泰國中部出產的“暹羅柚”品質最高， 其中佛統府“坤西施”和“挽巴谷”兩地的品種更最為著名。另一款王族貢品“ 泰式蒸花形免治豬肉餃”外皮顏色漂亮，是以蝶豆花泡水再用來搓皮，餡料則用免治豬、蝦製成，明顯受到中國烹調影響。“灆”的招牌菜還有“酸辣蒜蓉汁炒蟹”及“脆炸石斑魚配酸辣青芒果沙律”，前者使用斯里蘭卡巨型肉蟹，配上檸檬汁、魚露再加上雞湯煮上20分鐘，後者將芒果及魚切絲起肉，骨頭炸脆，兩款菜式均以酸辣勾勒出材料本身的鮮味，吃下清爽，最適合夏天享用。
The Royal Thai Cuisine Dishes
Before the introduction of chili, Thai Royal Cuisine was more simplistic, with fish and rice being the main ingredients. During the era of the Ayutthaya Kingdom, foreign merchants and the prosperous trade activities brought to Thailand not only wealth, but also new ingredients and new recipes. Nowadays, fruits like mangos and pomelos are still popular ingredients using in royal Thai cuisine. The NAAM Thai Restaurant in Macau is rated in the Michelin Guide with some royal Thai cuisine dishes, such as Yam Som-O (Thai Pomelo Salad with Tiger Prawns) created by the current royal family. One of ingredient is the best-quality Tubtim Siam Pomelo, which is produced in central Thailand, especially those in Wat Phra Kaew and Bang Pa-in. For another Chineseinfluenced dish Chor Mung (Steamed Butterfly Pea Dumplings with Minced Pork), the beautiful colour of the dumpling wrappers is made from the butterfly pea flower, with minced pork and prawns as the filling. Other refreshing hotsour signature dishes suitable for summer include Poo Ma-Now (Wok-fried Sri Lankan Green Crab with Chili and Garlic-lime Sauce) and Pla Thord (Crispyfried Sea Grouper with Hot-sour Young Mango Salad). For the former, the chef cooks the Sri Lankan green crab with lemon juice, fish sauce and chicken soup for 20 minutes, while for the latter, the chef shreds the mangos and fish, and crispy-fried the fish bones.
“灆”泰國餐廳 NAAM Thai Restaurant
G/F, Grand LAPA Macau, Avenida da
電話 Tel：+853 8793 4818
貴為中國“八大菜系”之一，川菜本身亦有分為上河幫、小河幫、下河幫三大派別。與泰國菜的酸、甜、辣、鮮比較，中國川菜突出的是麻、辣、香、鮮； 所用的調味品有花椒、胡椒、辣椒，合稱“ 三椒”；蔥、薑、蒜，合稱“三香”，口感清、鮮、醇、濃並重，以善用麻辣調味著稱，並以“ 一菜一格、百菜百味”而聞名。有趣的是，與泰國一樣，川人食用由南美傳入的辣椒最早有史籍記載為為清乾隆十四年(1749)，不過為二百多年。在此之前川人只使用在當地盛產的花椒，這種調味料在川菜里地位可謂舉足輕重，無論是著名的麻婆豆腐、夫妻肺片還是平常的家常菜，花椒都擔當極重要的角色 。
Sichuan Pepper: Soul of the Cuisine
As one of the eight major cuisines in China, Sichuan food is further divided into three strands. Compared to Thai food, which emphasises sourness, sweetness, spiciness and freshness, Sichuan cuisine is better known for the numbing sensation it creates and its fragrance. The numbing and spicy flavours come from Sichuan pepper, peppercorn and red chili, while its fragrance is the result of spring onion, ginger and garlic. While both Thai and Sichuan cuisines use red chili, the spice did not make it to the area until 1749 in recorded history. Therefore, it was only some 200 years ago that people in Sichuan started putting red chili into their food. Before that, only the local pepper was used. From the famous Mapo Tofu and Fuqi Feipian to everyday family dishes, it is indispensable and represents the soul of the cuisine.
在中國美食界有句說話﹕“ 四川人是不怕辣，湖南人是辣不怕！”其實很多嗜辣的老饕，都說分不清四川及湖南辣菜的分別。 總括來說，湘菜與川菜最大的差別就是不放花椒，因為湖南民眾基本不會適應花椒這種調味料，而湘菜的口味略重於川菜，辣味更足。要清楚知道分別，可以一嚐澳門米其林二星餐廳“ 風味居”，餐廳主理四川及湖南菜式；必吃的有“ 荷香醬牛肋肉”及“ 水煮飄香沸騰魚”。前者製作過程極為繁複，先把黃牛肋肉抹上香料蒸煮，冷卻後再放入以十多種香料泡成的鹵水，以80度慢煮兩個半小時。牛肋肉入口軟腍入味，香料更能迫出牛肉的鮮味，絕對是人間極品。後者的沸騰魚即水煮魚，把斤半重的桂花以薑汁醃之，再以花椒辣椒等多種材料製作，魚肉滑而麻辣平均，水煮湯底濃而不濁，極考功夫。川菜最常見的辣子雞，更是平凡中見到不平凡：使用極新鮮之溫體走地雞；大廚只用腿肉，確保炸出來外脆內嫩肉多汁。來到這裏不要忘記試他們的前菜小碟，絕對能從細微中見功夫；像一道秘製酸椒秋葵，醬汁是經大廚以多番研究而成，能帶出秋葵鮮爽及獨有黏口的質感。
Hunan and Sichuan Cuisines
Both Hunan and Sichuan cuisines are famous for their spiciness, their key difference lies in the lack of Sichuan pepper in Hunan dishes, which are in general richer and spicier. To train your taste buds to distinguish them, visit the two-Michelin-starred restaurant Feng Wei Ju in Macau, which serves both Sichuan and Hunan dishes. Its signature dishes include Beef Tenderloin with Lotus Paste and Boiled Mandarin Fish Fillets in Chili Oil. The former involves an extremely complicated cooking process: the tenderloin is first seasoned with multiple spices and then steamed. After cooling down, it is then slow-cooked in an 80°C herbal stock for 2.5 hours, hence the meat is tender and flavourful. For the latter, a 1 kg mandarin fish is first marinated with ginger juice and then cooked in a soup full of Sichuan and chili peppers. The spiciness spreads evenly across the fish and the soup has a very rich flavour. Another delicious dish is Crispy Chicken Fillet. Although it is a common Sichuan dish, the restaurant manages to elevate it to the next level by using fresh free-range chickens. Only chicken thighs are used, so the meat is crispy on the outside and juicy on the inside. Don’t forget to try the restaurant’s appetisers, its Sour and Spicy Okras features a home-made sauce, which accentuates the crunchiness and stickiness of the vegetable.
風味居 Feng Wei Ju
5/F, Starworld Hotel, Avenida da
Amizade, Alameda Dutor Carlos
電話 Tel：+853 8290 8668